did esther have children

King Ahasuerus did not know that Esther was Jewish. The book of Esther does not say that Vashti had any children by the King. The Heilspiegel Altarpiece by Konrad Witz depicts Esther appearing before the king to beg mercy for the Jews, despite the punishment for appearing without being summoned being death. 13a), and she was brought up by Mordecai as his daughter. Theodor-Albeck], MS. Vatican, para. Because the Hebrew Bible's version of Esther's story contains neither prayers nor even a single reference to God, Greek redactors apparently felt compelled to give the tale a more explicit religious orientation, alluding to "God" or the "Lord" fifty times. This time, she disclosed that she was a Jew and that Haman was plotting to kill all the Jews including her (7:1–6). When … All we have to go on is what is found in the book of Esther, in the Old Testament. A … Esther Hicks (née Weaver, born March 5, 1948), often credited as Abraham Hicks, is an American inspirational speaker and author.She has co-written nine books with her late husband Jerry Hicks, presented numerous workshops on the law of attraction with Abraham Hicks Publications and appeared in the original version of the 2006 film The Secret. Mordecai tells Esther, who tells the king in the name of Mordecai, and he is saved. Esther Williams married Leonarda Kovner on June 27, 1940, but they divorced on September 12, 1944.Later on November 27, 1947, she married Ben Gage and had three children who they divorced in April 1959. Following Esther's coronation, Mordecai learns of an assassination plot by Bigthan and Teresh to kill King Ahasuerus. According to the biblical ‘Book of Esther,’ Esther was a Hebrew woman from Persia who became the queen of Persian king Ahasuerus, generally identified as Xerxes I, the fifth king of kings of the Persian Achaemenid Empire. Personal Life. Fachartikel in: Michaela Bauks, Klaus Koenen (Hgg. She was the daughter of Abihail and had become an orphan in her childhood. Struck by the beauty of Esther, the king went on to marry her and made her the queen. Many scholars believe that the name “Esther” was inspired by “Ishtar,” the ancient Mesopotamian goddess of love, beauty, desire, sex, fertility, justice, political power, and war. Her real name was Hadassah, but she was called Esther by non-Jews, this being the Persian name for Venus (ibid.). I imagine either the writers left it open for further story-line development, or it was forgotten. Haman is also instructed to yell, "This is what shall be done to the man whom the king wishes to honour!". 15a), though some say that she was of sallow complexion but endowed with great charm. She brought him up to be favorable to the Jews and he eventually lifted the ban against the rebuilding of the Beit Hamikdash (Holy Temple), which led to the building of the Second Temple. He orders Haman to be removed from his sight. [18] That being said, many Jews and Christians believe the story to be a true historical event, especially Persian Jews who have a close relationship to Esther. What is not generally agreed upon is the identity or nature of that non-Jewish festival which came to be appropriated by the Jews as Purim, and whose motifs are recapitulated in disguised form in Esther." Conversely, Rabbi Jehoshua maintained that Esther was her original name, and that she was called Hadassah (myrtle) in Hebrew because she had an (olive-)green complexion. The Rabbis assert that King Darius II was born from the union, and he succeeded King Achashverosh as ruler of Persia. After building the gallows, Haman goes to the palace in the middle of the night to wait for the earliest moment he can see the king. Even in those troublesome times, though, God was at work. The Hottest Male Celebrities With The Best Abs, Celebrities Who Are Not In The Limelight Anymore. Mordecai was elevated to a prominent position in the king’s court following Haman’s death (10:1–3). That evening, the king, unable to sleep, asks that the Annals of the Kingdom be read to him so that he will become drowsy. Esther hesitates, saying that she could be put to death if she goes to the king without being summoned; nevertheless, Mordecai urges her to try. I suppose the rabbis thought the midrashim were … She then invited the king and Haman to a feast (5:3–5). Esther's faint had not often been depicted in art before Tintoretto. According to Susan Zaeske, by virtue of the fact that Esther used only rhetoric to convince the king to save her people, the story of Esther is a "rhetoric of exile and empowerment that, for millennia, has notably shaped the discourse of marginalized peoples such as Jews, women, and African Americans", persuading those who have power over them. What Mordecai was asking her to do could have easily been the last thing she ever did. The king falls in love with her and makes her his Queen.[13]. That Esther shares bed and board with a gentile king, and the book itself makes no mention of God may have contributed to early Jewish doubts about its canonicity. [15], Because the text lacks any references to known events, some historians believe that the narrative of Esther is fictional, and the name Ahasuerus is used to refer to a fictionalized Xerxes I, in order to provide an aetiology for Purim. [17], Christian references to the book are rare in the writings of the Eastern Church Fathers, and had only marginal importance for several centuries in that tradition. But they changed it and now Esther had to pay; by giving all the firstborn who will come from her bloodline (grandchild, great-grandchild, etc). However, Jewish tradition does point to a child born to the couple. Esther was the youngest of five children. On the third day, Esther goes to the courtyard in front of the king's palace, and she is welcomed by the king, who stretches out his sceptre for her to touch, and offers her anything she wants "up to half of the kingdom". The inclusion of the work in the Septuagint suggests that it was so among Greek-speaking Jews in the diaspora. The story of Esther happened after Cyrus, the first Persian King, called for all deported Jews to return to Jerusalem to build the House of God (538 B.C., Ezra 1:2). 2. Why did she stay with him, rather than restart her life? When Mordecai (who had stationed himself in the street to advise Esther) refuses to bow to him, Haman pays King Ahasuerus 10,000 Silver Talents for the right to exterminate all of the Jews in Ahasuerus' kingdom. [26], There are several paintings depicting Esther. The Hicks' books, including the series The Law of … 6 months ago. Esther's stepfather, Mordecai refused to bow down to Haman, an advisor and high official of the king. The Hebrew form 'str in Esther cannot represent Akkadian Ištar for neo-Akkadian borrowings into Aramaic conserve the original š rather than altering it to 's', as would be the case here were the two linked. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Esther_haram.jpg, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ester_y_Mardoqueo_escribiendo_la_primera_carta_del_Purim_(Ester,_9-20-21)_-_Aert_de_GELDER_-_Google_Cultural_Institute.jpg. Famous as: Queen of the Persian king Ahasuerus, Empresses & Queens Esther and Mordecai then sent letters across the provinces and declared the 14th day of the Hebrew month of ‘Adar’ a Jewish holiday named Purim. He was made the king’s viceroy (3:1). One regards the principles governing phonological shifts in Semitic loanwords. When Mordecai learns of Haman’s (the king’s advisor) plot to annihilate all of … You can read about her in your Old Testament. While we do not know a lot about what happened to Esther one thing that we do know is that she had a son, Darius, who became King Darius II. Even as she advances to the highest position of the harem, perfumed with myrrh and allocated certain foods and servants, she is under strict instructions from Mordecai, who meets with her each day, to conceal her Jewish origins. The first members of this family were a man named Mikael and his wife Esther. Aquatic filming had its dangers according to Esther. However, Jewish tradition does point to a child born to the couple. ... First, in verse 3: "And in every province where the king's command and decree [that all the Jews, men, women and children, would be destroyed on the thirteenth day of Adar] arrived, there was great mourning among the Jews, with … Haman was hanged accordingly. If you want to discount Rashi you can simply say that זַרְעוֹ refers to Mordechai's descendants through Esther (whom the Megillah calls his daughter). hadassah) she was of ideal hei… She is the second oldest of four children. Haman was horrified and totally taken aback when the king instructed him to follow this for Mordecai (6:10–11). Her brave actions saved a nation and led the Jewish people to a new level of influence in Susa. Following this, Ahasuerus wanted a new wife and selected Esther, smitten by her beauty when she and other beautiful virgins were presented before him. [27][28], Esther was regarded in Catholic theology as a typological forerunner[29] of the Virgin Mary in her role as intercessor[30] Her regal election parallels Mary's Assumption and as she becomes queen of Persia, Mary becomes queen of heaven; Mary's epithet as 'stella maris' parallels Esther as a 'star' and both figure as sponsors of the humble before the powerful,[31] because Esther being allowed an exception to the strict Persian law on uninvited entry to the king's presence was seen as paralleling the unique Immaculate Conception of Mary. Her choice was likely either submit or die. Additionally, no copies or fragments of Esther were found at Qumran in the contents of the Dead Sea Scrolls. This is the moment when King Xerxes tries to look away from her, but she can't be ignored. The people were bewildered, and there was great mourning among the Jews (Esther 3:15; 4:3). Esther's story is retold by Josephus in Book 11, Chapter 6 of the Jewish Antiquities. According to the ‘Book of Esther,’ Esther was a Hebrew woman in Persia whose birth name was Hadassah. Meanwhile, Haman the Agagite was elevated to the top-most position in the court. Rather than jumping into action, Esther spent time in prayer, fasting, … She has two brothers, Michael and Ryan, and one sister, Katherine. He then started searching for a new queen from a selection of beautiful virgins from across the empire (2:1–4). When she refuses to appear, he has her banished and seeks a new queen. Various hypotheses vie for the etymology of the latter. The book miraculously opens to the page telling of Mordecai's great service, and the king asks if he had already received a reward. [13] Esther before Ahasuerus by Tintoretto (1546-47, Royal Collection) shows what became one of the most commonly depicted parts of the story. In other cassone depictions, for example by Filippino Lippi, Esther's readiness to show herself before the court is contrasted to Vashti's refusal to expose herself to the public assembly. [citation needed], Contemporary viewers would probably have recognized a similarity between the faint and the motif of the Swoon of the Virgin, which was very common in depictions of the Crucifixion of Jesus. Haman having set the date of the thirteenth of Adar to commence his campaign against the Jews, this determined the date of the festival of Purim. Claiming that her oldest sister, Maurine, was more of a mother to her while growing up, it was Maurine who became her first swimming coach. Esther was a beautiful young woman who was chosen by King Ahasuerus to be queen. Esther was one of the four most beautiful women in the world (ibid. She risked execution. [11][12], David Testen advanced in 1996 a simpler solution than Yasuda's, by suggesting that as a name 'ester' could be a compound term conflating Semitic ās with the Old Iranian term for a tree ( dā́ru./drau-) to yield 'myrtle tree'). Matthew (Matt) Walton is Zeb's brother (and therefore, John's uncle.) There is no historical record of this, and Queen Amestris … [16][17][l] However, Amestris herself did not descend from these families, and Darius I is also said to have married a woman who did not belong to them. Corby did not have any children and nor did she remarry after divorcing Francis Corby in 1944. When Esther asks the king to revoke the order exterminating the Jews, the king is initially hesitant, saying that an order issued by the king cannot be repealed. And, Esther Rantzen, 79, ... Luke Evans confirms he has split from Rafael Olarra after 18 months together as he admits he would love to have children before he's 'old' The mausoleum housing the shrine of Mordechai and Esther consists of a simple brick structure crowned with a dome which was built some five to seven centuries ago over the underground gravesites. You have heard the story of Esther before. "[23] Esther is related to Daniel in that both represent a "type" for Jews living in Diaspora, and hoping to live a successful life in an alien environment. We need to put the Book of Esther into an historical context to better understand Esther's choice. 7. Esther waited on God’s timing. They had been married for 12.6 years. And, Esther Rantzen, 79, ... Luke Evans confirms he has split from Rafael Olarra after 18 months together as he admits he would love to have children before he's 'old' [2] In the Tanakh Esther is given two names: Hadassah/Esther (2:7). The tale opens with Esther as beautiful and obedient, but also a relatively passive figure. The Book of Esther says that Vashti was the wife of King Xerxes when he first became king of Persia, followed three years later by Queen Esther. Esther became the queen of Persia. [i][j][k] Some historians additionally argue that, because the Persian kings did not marry outside of seven Persian noble families, it is unlikely that there was a Jewish queen Esther and that in any case the historical Xerxes's queen was Amestris. Perhaps they prepared the way for our modern Purim spiels which also tend to make fun of the story. A decree was passed by the king that all should bow down before Haman. After spending the entire day honoring Mordecai, Haman rushes to Esther's second banquet, where Ahasuerus is already waiting. Upon returning from the garden, the king is further enraged. Spiritual & Religious Leaders. Later on October 24, 1994, she married Edward Belland resided in Beverly Hills. Dahlia granted this request, but made it clear that the magic had a price, and it was a price that Esther was forced to pay years later—her payment to her sister w… [37], Esther is commemorated as a matriarch in the Calendar of Saints of the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod on May 24. Haman, instead of requesting that Mordecai be hanged, is ordered to take Mordecai through the streets of the capital on the Royal Horse wearing the Royal Robes. 7 days ago. We don’t have too may details about King Achashverosh and Queen Esther subsequent to the Megillah narrative. I’m so type A. Esther swore to have her magic back, to gain immense power and to make Dahlia pay for what she had done. Ours is flawed. (, For the association of myrtle with hope in the Bible see, Testen himself did not exclude the possible that the various semitic terms for myrtle came ultimately from a non-Semitic source, with a phonological shape *. Esther knew that anyone who approached the king without first being summoned was killed – unless the king was in the mood to extend his scepter and spare their life. [24], Given the great historical link between Persian and Jewish history, modern day Persian Jews are called "Esther's Children". On December 9, 2008, Iranian news outlets reported that the tomb of Mordechai and Esther, would now be under official government protection and responsibility. Infuriated by the queen’s refusal to obey his order, Ahasuerus banished Vashti. In Susa, the Jews of the capital were given another day to kill their oppressors; they rested and celebrated on the fifteenth day of Adar, again giving charity, exchanging foodstuffs, and feasting as well. All we know about her is that she was a Jew, and was the adopted daughter of Mordecai. Esther's tomb joins Iranian National Heritage List. Later on November 27, 1947, she married Ben Gage and had three children who they divorced in April 1959. https://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/esther-36883.php. [22] According to Sidnie White Crawford, "Esther's position in a male court mirrors that of the Jews in a Gentile world, with the threat of danger ever present below the seemingly calm surface. Feminist women who have studied the Scroll of Esther have emphasized the way in which Esther's character is shaped by the perspectives of the men in the story. A young Jewish girl becomes queen of Persia and happens" to be in a position to counter a villainous plot to exterminate her people. Esther later stated that her mother, Bula, tried "to get rid of me" while pregnant by purposefully going horseback riding and by once jumping off a chest of drawers. [13], Esther, cousin of Mordecai, was a member of the Jewish community in the Exilic Period who claimed as an ancestor Kish, a Benjamite who had been taken from Jerusalem into captivity. The book suggests that Esther, born to Abihail, was orphaned as a child and was thereafter adopted and raised by her cousin, Mordecai. This incident of saving the Jews from Haman is commemorated and celebrated annually as a Jewish holiday called Purim. As it was the custom to eat on reclining couches, it appears to the king as if Haman is attacking Esther. I imagine either the writers left it open for further story-line development, or it was forgotten. At this point, the king entered the room and thought Haman was making a sexual advance on Esther. After Mordecai saves the king's life, Haman the Agagite is made Ahasuerus' highest adviser, and orders that everyone bow down to him. A building venerated as being the Tomb of Esther and Mordechai is located in Hamadan, Iran,[25] although the village of Kfar Bar'am in northern Israel also claims to be the burial place of Queen Esther. The outraged king then ordered that Haman be hanged on the same gallows that the latter had prepared for Mordecai (7:8–10). The Ibn Ezra explains that of course his wife knew she had children with him, but he was relating all of his good fortune, as in "I have so much money and such a great family" -- he was bragging not about the numbers but the greatness of his children.. Immanuel of Rome explains that he was saying that even though he had many children, that doesn't compare to the fact that Mordechai won't bow. Esther tells Ahasuerus that while she appreciates the offer, she must put before him a more basic issue: she explains that there is a person plotting to kill her and her entire people, and that this person's intentions are to harm the king and the kingdom. [10][g] Zadok then ventured an alternative derivation, suggesting that the only plausible etymology would be from the Old Iranian word for 'star' (ستاره (setāre)), usually transcribed as stara, cognate with Greek ἀστήρ (astér as in 'astronomy'),[h] the word Hellenistic Jews used to interprete her name. Following this, she was adopted by her cousin, Mordecai (‘Esther’ 2:7). (, "The story is fictitious and written to provide an account of the origin of the feast of Purim; the book contains no references to the known historical events of the reign of Xerxes." In season 2, episode 15, it is revealed that Zeb and Esther had three children; John (John-Boy's father), Benjamin (who died in World War I) and one who was never named. But she dared to do it, dressed like a queen and accompanied by two maids. The story of Esther is also made reference to in chapter 28 of 1 Meqabyan, a book considered canonical in the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church. His relaying … She went to her sister, Dahlia, and begged her to use her magic to grant Esther the ability to have children. Meanwhile, Haman built gallows to hang Mordecai. The below titles are listed in alphabetical order by author name, and books needed to be released by June 16, 2020, to be considered. Initially afraid of meeting the king unsummoned, Esther told Mordecai to ask the Jews to fast for 3 days and said that she would also do so (4:15–16.). Upon hearing this, an enraged Ahasuerus goes out to the garden to calm down and consider the situation. Given the great historical link between Persian and Jewish history, modern day Persian Jews are called "Esther's Children". The Book of Esther: Esther 2013 Revelation Road 2: The Sea of Glass and Fire : Rachel McManus 2014 Turnaround Jake: Jessica Henry 2016 Crossing Streets ... Sirena / Mandy 19 Episodes 2009 Criminal Minds: Megan Chertow Episode: "The Eyes Have It" 2010 Castle: Julia Foster Episode: … However, till that time, she had not disclosed her Jewish background to the king. Leith writes however that her name is 'cognate with Ishtar, the Mesopotamian goddess of love and war, "Today there is general agreement that it is essentially a work of fiction, the purpose of which was to justify the Jewish appropriation of an originally non-Jewish holiday. Beautiful maidens gather together at the harem in the citadel of Susa under the authority of the eunuch Hegai. [17][m][35][36][37] It was accepted by Cyril of Jerusalem, and by the Synod of Laodicea (364-365 CE), and confirmed as such at the Council of Rome (388) and the Synod of Hippo (393). Esther asks that the entire Jewish community fast and pray for three days before she goes to see the king; Mordecai agrees. Mordecai, the son of Jair, of the tribe of Benjamin, raised Esther as his own daughter. Some other sources believe that the graves of the queen and Mordecai lie in the ancient Jewish village of Kfar Bar'am in northern Israel. The following evening, when the king and Haman attended Esther's second banquet, the king promised her to grant any request that she made. At the time of the feast, she invited them to another feast, the following evening (5:6–8). Feminist women who have studied the Scroll of Esther have emphasized the way in which Esther's character is shaped by the perspectives of the men in the story. Hebrew hadassah is the feminine form of the word for myrtle,[3][c] a plant that has a resonance with the idea of hope. [32] Thinking that the king was talking about him, Haman advised that the man should be dressed in royal robes and the crown of the king, mounted on the king's royal horse, and glided around while a herald called "See how the King honors a man he wishes to reward!" (6:7–9). The king could not sleep that night and recollected Mordecai’s efforts in foiling an assassination plot against him. The author did not intend Queen Esther to have had children.Answer:It is true that the book of Esther does not record her having had any children but we might assume that she did have children. Who Is The Greatest Female Warrior In History? Matthew (Matt) Walton is Zeb's brother (and therefore, John's uncle.) The book elucidated that during a festival, a heavily drunk King Ahasuerus ordered Queen Vashti to come before the guests wearing her crown and to show her beauty (1:10–11). to 522 B.C. Ahasuerus allows Esther and Mordecai to draft another order, with the seal of the king and in the name of the king, to allow the Jewish people to defend themselves and fight with their oppressors on the thirteenth day of Adar. According to the ‘Book of Esther,’ Esther was a Hebrew woman in Persia whose birth name was Hadassah. I struggle with this one, myself. History records that Xerxes was married to Amestris, not, sfn error: no target: CITEREFWind1940–1941 (, "Typology, sexuality and the Renaissance Esther", "Esther (Hebrew, אֶסְתֵּר; Greek, Εσθήρ)", "Ancient synagogues in Bar'am and Capernaum", "The Samaritan Version of the Esther Story", Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, "Esther before Ahasuerus c. 1546-7 by Jacopo Tintoretto (1519-94)". Like the myrtle (Heb. God’s timing is perfect. This wasn’t as easy as it may have sounded. Esther revealed to the king that she was a Jew and thus succeeded in persuading the king in not only overturning the edict but also in allowing the Jews to kill their enemies. 1918, date of death unknown), known by her stage names "Baby Esther" and "Little Esther" (and variants thereof), was an American singer and child entertainer of the late 1920s, known for interpreting popular songs with a "mixture of seriousness and childish mischief". Since Purim is not a holiday ordained by Moses in the first five books of the bible, scholars have wondered if Jews of ancient time indeed observed it annually. Did Esther have a choice of whether or not to sleep with the king? Using the seal of the king, in the name of the king, Haman sends an order to the provinces of the kingdom to allow the extermination of the Jews on the thirteenth of Adar. She went to her sister, Dahlia, and begged her to use her magic to grant Esther the ability to have children. Esther was a descendant of King Saul. Esther[a] is described in all versions[b] of the Book of Esther as the Jewish queen of a Persian king Ahasuerus. During the banquet, the king repeats his offer again, whereupon Esther invites both the king and Haman to a banquet she is making on the following day as well. "[38] These additions to Esther in the Apocrypha were added approximately in the second or first century BCE.[39][40]. After Haman is put to death, Ahasuerus gives Haman's estate to Esther. Biblical Jewish queen of Persia and Medes, This article is about the heroine of the Book of Esther. She had a son, Daryavesh who would be Mordechai's grandson. Secondly, Ishtar is a theonym, never an anthroponym unless modified significantly. Just as a wolf seizes its spoils, so did Esther seize the throne; similarly, Mordecai and Esther divided Haman’s spoils among them (Gen. Rabbah [ed. [9], In the narrative, King Ahasuerus is drunk at a celebration of the third year of his reign, and orders his queen, Vashti, to appear before him and his guests in the nude to display her beauty. Haman then obtained the king’s permission to execute his plan. ... children Cambyses II Smerdis Atossa Artystone Cambyses II marries his sister Atossa – They have no children Cambyses II is king from 530 B.C. I cannot imagine the pain young Esther had to endure in her upbringing. He also thought that the Hebrew name was to be linked to an Akkadian word meaning 'bride' (ḫadašatu) which happens to be an epithet often attached to the Babylonian goddess. (, "Although the details of its setting are entirely plausible and the story may even have some basis in actual events, in terms of literary genre the book is not history." On the 13th of the month of ‘Adar,’ the day when Haman’s plot was scheduled to be executed, the Jews killed the 10 sons of Haman and 500 other men in Shushan (9:1–12). Her father died soon after her conception and her mother when she was born (Meg. During the course of the story, she evolves into someone who takes a decisive role in her own future and that of her people. She was the daughter of Abihail and had become an orphan in her childhood. Esther longed for a family, though, after over a year of marriage, she found herself barren. [9][f], In 1986 Ran Zadok dismissed the etymological correlation between Babylonian Ishtar and Esther on two grounds. King Xerxes allowed Haman to do as he pleased in the matter, and a decree went out to all the provinces that on a certain day, which had been chosen by lot (or purim), the people were "to destroy, to kill, and to annihilate all Jews, young and old, women and children, in one day" (Esther 3:13). Some of these include a series of six panel paintings by Filippino Lippi and Sandro Botticelli of the 1470s, known as ‘Life of Esther,’ or ‘Three Scenes from the Story of Esther’; ‘Esther before Ahasuerus’ (1546–1547) by Venetian painter Tintoretto; ‘Ahasveros and Haman at the Feast of Esther’ (1660) by Rembrandt van Rijn; ‘Esther before Ahasuerus’ by 17th-century Italian artist Artemisia Gentileschi; and ‘Queen Esther’ (1878) by Edwin Long. She went to see the king on the third day of her fast, when the king stretched out his scepter to her, assuring that she would not be punished (5:1–2). His other speculation, that ḫadašatu itself also meant myrtle, has no empirical basis in Akkadian texts. Esther Lee Jones (born ca. Before he left for that campaign in Egypt he secretly killed his … Following this, she was adopted by her cousin, Mordecai (‘Esther’ 2:7). … Esther did not allow her difficult circumstances make her bitter.

Beaches In Westhampton, Salmon Foil Packets Camping, Advantages And Disadvantages Of Video Conferencing, Wolf Fang Band, Pepe Pizza Menu, Jetblue Airways Corporation 2009 Case Study Solution, Ceviche Rezept Peru, Ooty Carrot Rate In Mettupalayam, Wolf Teeth In Mares,

Dodaj komentarz

Twój adres email nie zostanie opublikowany. Pola, których wypełnienie jest wymagane, są oznaczone symbolem *